Lifestyle diseases preventive cardiology

Preventive cardiology:--

The Preventive Cardiology program is an integral part of the division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Its mission is to help prevent cardiovascular disease. The Preventive Cardiology program encompasses the following services:

  1. Preventive cardiology clinics, which include cholesterol [lipids], hypertension, diabetes control and other risk reduction clinics which promote yoga, meditation, exercise prescription and counseling, smoking cessation, stress management.
  2. Health education of the society about lifestyle diseases and the risk factor management. Primordial prevention in high risk groups having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular disease and diabetes and in persons with prediabetes, insulin resistance etc. we do regular screening in predisposed persons and arrest the progress of risk to overt disease with the best homeopathic prevention-intervention protocols.

Lifestyle diseases

High cholesterol

When you have high cholesterol, you may develop fatty deposits in your blood vessels. Eventually, these deposits make it difficult for enough blood to flow through your arteries. Your heart may not get as much oxygen-rich blood as it needs, which increases the risk of a heart attack. Decreased blood flow to your brain can cause a stroke. High cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) can be inherited, but it is often the after effect of unhealthy lifestyle choices, and thus preventable and manageable. A healthy diet, regular exercise and sometimes medication can help in reducing high cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol transports cholesterol particles throughout your body. LDL cholesterol builds up in the walls of your arteries, making them hard and narrow.

Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL cholesterol makes LDL cholesterol larger in size, causing your blood vessels to narrow. High-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL, or "good," cholesterol picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to your liver.

Risk factors:-

  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Large waist circumference
  • Lack of exercise.
  • Diabetes

Tips for reducing cholesterol:-

  • Limit your dietary cholesterol--- The most important sources of cholesterol include organ meats, egg yolks and whole milk products. So avoiding them helps to reduce cholesterol. Oatmeal and oat bran are other good choices. Fruits and vegetables are rich in dietary fiber, which can help lower cholesterol.
  • Eat heart-healthy fish- Salmon, mackerel and herring are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which help promote heart health.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Quitting smoking can improve your HDL cholesterol level

HYPERURICAEMIA [HIGH URIC ACID]

Everyone has uric acid in his or her body. Uric acid is a by product of protein metabolism. High levels of uric acid in blood pose the risk for developing gout and uric acid stones in kidney. If you have gout, high uric acid buildup can lead to more attacks. To help reduce future gout attacks, it’s important to lower your uric acid to a healthy level.(less than 6 mg/dL). Gout attacks may be triggered by alcohol, certain medicines, another illness, stressful events, or other factors. A high uric acid level can be caused when your body either produces too much uric acid or your kidneys don't eliminate uric acid rapidly enough.

Factors that may cause a high uric acid level in your blood include:

  • Diuretic medications
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Genetics (inherited tendencies)
  • Hypothyroidism (under active thyroid)
  • Immune-suppressing drugs
  • Niacin, or vitamin B-3
  • Obesity
  • Psoriasis
  • Renal insufficiency β€” inability of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Tumor lyses syndrome β€” a rapid release of cells into the blood caused by certain cancers or by chemotherapy for those cancer

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions β€” increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels .It is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many components of metabolic syndrome are associated with a sedentary lifestyle, including increased adipose tissue (predominantly central); reduced HDL cholesterol; and a trend toward increased triglycerides, blood pressure, and glucose in the genetically susceptible.

Risk factors:-

Obesity increases your risk of metabolic syndrome. Risk of metabolic syndrome is higher if you've ever had cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or polycystic ovary syndrome. If you have metabolic syndrome or any of the components of metabolic syndrome, aggressive lifestyle changes can delay or even prevent the development of serious health problems. You're more likely to have metabolic syndrome if you had diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) or if you have a family history of type 2 diabetes. Having metabolic syndrome can increase your risk of developing Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease. In people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, presence of metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome:-

High triglyceride level, Reduced HDL cholesterol, increased blood pressure, Elevated fasting blood sugar Recent research indicates prolonged chronic stress can contribute to metabolic syndrome by disrupting the hormonal balance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis).[22] A dysfunctional HPA-axis causes high cortisol levels to circulate, which results in raising glucose and insulin levels, which in turn cause insulin-mediated effects on adipose tissue, ultimately promoting visceral adiposity[fat deposition], insulin resistance, dyslipidemia[ bad cholesterol] and hypertension, with direct effects on the bone, causing "low turnover" osteoporosis

Myocardial infarctions [heart attacks]

Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it is in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired. Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol,

Prevention:-risk factors that can be modified and may help to prevent MI include:

  • Smoking- reduce or quit smoking
  • High blood pressure.-treat your high b.p
  • Overweight - Losing weight will reduce the amount of workload on your heart and also help to lower your blood pressure.
  • A high cholesterol-- This should usually be treated if it is high.
  • Inactivity- You should aim to do some moderate physical activity on most days of the week for at least 30 minutes - for example, brisk walking, swimming, cycling, dancing, gardening, etc.
  • Diet.-You should aim to eat a healthy diet.
  • Diabetes- People with diabetes have a higher risk of having heart attacks. This risk can be reduced by ensuring your blood pressure, cholesterol levels and glucose levels are well controlled.
  • Family history. Your risk is increased if there is a family history of heart disease or a stroke that occurred in your father or brother aged below 55, or in your mother or sister aged below 65.

Stroke

Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA] happens when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic due to lack of blood flow and hemorrhagic due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side among others. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation among others. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by bleeding either directly into the brain or into the space surrounding the brain. Bleeding may occur due to a brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms. Prevention includes decreasing risk factors

Nephrolithiasis [kidney stone]

  • Kidney stones (renal Lithia sis, nephrolithiasis) are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts.
  • A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter. Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Nausea vomiting

Risk factors:-

  • Positive Family history-- If someone in your family has kidney stones, you're more likely to develop stones, too.
  • Certain diets--- Eating a diet that's high in protein, sodium and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet.
  • Dehydration--- Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones.
  • Obesity other medical conditions. Diseases and conditions that may increase your risk of kidney stones include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, certain medications and some urinary tract infections.

Prevention:--

  • Make sure that you're drinking enough water
  • Continue eating calcium-rich foods, but be cautious with calcium supplements intake.
  • Eat fewer oxalate-rich foods. Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein.

Homeopathic management:

Homeopathic mother tinctures and constitutional medicines with nutrition and exercise programs treats risk factors like obesity,hypertension,diabetes,high cholesterol ,impaired glucose tolerance etc very effectively and thus prevent the outcome of these risk factors,i.e, cardiovascular diseases .